Behringer X32 40 Input 25 Bus Digital Mixing Console
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40-Input, 25-Bus Digital Mixing Console with 32 Programmable MIDAS Preamps, 25 Motorized Faders, Channel LCD's, 32-Channel Audio Interface and iPad/iPhone Remote Control
- 40-input channel, 25-bus digital mixing console for Studio and Live application
- 32 MIDAS-designed, fully programmable mic preamps for audiophile sound quality
- 25 Fully automated motorised 100 mm faders allow for instant overview, powerful scene management and DAW control
- 16 XLR outputs plus 6 additional line in/outputs, 2 phones connectors and a talkback section with integrated or external mic
- Individual and dynamic LCD Scribble Strips on all channels and buses creating easy assignment and intuitive channel distinction
- 32 x 32 channel USB 2.0 audio interface, with DAW remote control emulating HUI and Mackie Control
- iPad and iPhone apps for professional remote operation available free of charge—no host PC required
- High-resolution 7" day-viewable Colour TFT for easy viewing of workflow components and parameters
- Main LCR, 6 matrix buses and 16 mix buses each featuring inserts, 6-band parametric EQ's and full dynamics processing, plus 8 DCA and 6 mute groups
- Virtual FX rack featuring 8 true-stereo FX slots include high-end simulations such as Lexicon 480L and PCM70, EMT250 and Quantec QRS etc.
- 40-Bit floating-point DSP features "unlimited" dynamic range with no internal overload and near-zero overall latency (0.8 msec)
- Powerful scene management for convenient handling of complex productions
- 48-channel Digital Snake ready via AES50 ports, featuring KLARK TEKNIK’s SuperMAC networking capability for ultra-low jitter and latency
- USB type-A connector providing file storage and uncompressed stereo recordings plus show presets and system updates
- Dedicated and easy-to-use channel strip section with direct access controls and graphic user interface for intuitive workflow
- Additional user-definable control section allows for on-the-fly adjustments of your favorite parameters
- ULTRANET connectivity for BEHRINGER's P-16 Personal Monitoring System plus AES/EBU stereo digital output and MIDI
- Networked remote control for show setups with on-screen software editor via Ethernet
- Built-in expansion port for audio interface cards or digital networking bridges
- Future firmware updates, incl. new FX “Plug Ins”, downloadable from behringer.com free of charge
- 3-Year Warranty Program
- Designed and engineered in Germany
The BEHRINGER X32 has changed the game by completely rethinking what is possible from a digital mixer – and hundreds of thousands of users are enjoying the results.
A fluid workflow coupled with a fully interactive user interface ensures immediate familiarity and instills confidence.
Advanced engineering and meticulous design deliver stellar sonic performance at an extremely affordable price – changing the game entirely.
Three companies shared a common vision – to engineer and build the very best- sounding, technically-advanced audio products for discerning professionals.
The X32 Digital Mixer family is the result of the engineering, manufacturing and application expertise of legendary console manufacturer MIDAS, the iconic signal processing genius of KLARK TEKNIK and BEHRINGER’s unique ability to deliver a superior value proposition.
The synergy between these three great companies runs deep in the X32.
From the pristine, MIDAS -designed mic preamps to KLARK TEKNIK’s rock-solid, ultra-low latency SuperMAC networking technology and BEHRINGER’s completely re-engineered processing algorithms, X32 raises the bar on what a digital mixer can be.
A singular passion for delivering advanced technology, unrivalled usability and true road-worthiness has enabled us to engineer a digital console that is the ideal vehicle for your creative expression. But we’re just getting started!
Enhanced Workflow & Multi-Channel Networking
With the introduction of our X32 version 3.0 firmware, we have not only dramatically enhanced the workflow, but also added all-new capabilities including “Acoustic Integration” for total connectivity and control of your speaker and In-Ear Monitor (IEM) systems.
Then we completely re-imagined the more than 50 onboard FX “Plug-Ins” and added classic processor examples based on “True Physical Modelling”.
We’ve also made the X32 even more flexible, with swappable expansion cards for connecting to other multi-channel audio networking via USB, ADAT, MADI and Dante protocols, in addition to the onboard ULTRANET and AES50 connectivity. Above all, the X32 puts the power of digital in your hands – without compromise.
Intuitive. Immediate. Natural.
X32 is your mind-to-sound interface… the intersection of creativity and production. Whether you’re accustomed to digital mixers or not, the X32’s intuitive user interface offers a fluid mixing experience that instantly feels like home.
And then there is the X32’s latest version 2.0 firmware. We’ve added new scene management features and EQ functions, including a 100-band Real Time Analyzer, flexible library import/export capability and faster FX editing.
We also included 16 new FX “Plug-Ins” which are based on True Physical Modelling of famous classic audio hardware. This process means that we essentially “rebuilt” classic analog gear in the digital domain.
And then we added the most amazing digital networking that allows you to connect to the new TURBOSOUND iQ speakers via simple CAT5 connection. We call it “Acoustic Integration”.
This high-performance iQ Series also includes authentic acoustic modelling of some of the world’s most famous speakers - all remote controllable from your X32.
This is the total solution you have been waiting for.
X32 serves the user a full complement of 25 long-throw, 100 mm motorised servo faders for primary mix control. Working in concert with the LCD Scribble Strips and TFT Display, the faders serve multiple functions while always keeping you informed.
Separate fader sections for inputs and groups/buses allow for convenient assignments from inputs to groups/buses.
With the ability to store up to 100 scenes, X32’s motorised faders jump to life the moment a scene is recalled.
LCD Scribble Strips
The X32’s automated control surface is designed to present you with the control you need, when you need it.
A total of 29 programmable LCD Scribble Strips off er channel/bus identification that mirrors what is being controlled.
Use them to enter input/output tags, plus add icons you recognise at-a-glance. Then assign colours to create visual groups for immediate, on- the-fly recognition of similar inputs.
Simple, elegant and effective – plus you’ll never need masking tape again.
The X32 Channel Strip puts the most important channel processing parameters into one section so that no matter which channel you are working on, the controls are always the same.
This highly-efficient layout stems from BEHRINGER’s decades of console design and input from our users. Optimized control illumination ensures a clear indication of levels or status from any viewing angle.
Illuminated rotary encoders and switches give you control of preamp settings, frequency shelving, dual dynamics sections, as well as multi-mode fully parametric EQ, bus sends, main, mono and stereo panning.
7" Main Display
X32’s 7" day-viewable colour TFT (Thin-Film Transistor) display shows the setting parameters you need when you need them.
Selected for its high-contrast performance and outdoor visibility, TFT is ideal for concert and open air festival venues. Flanked by high-precision, context-sensitive tactile encoders, the screen comes to life and immediately reports in high definition all adjustments applied to a wide range of parameters.
Intelligent design puts control of vital functions such as Effects, Metering, Routing and much more 1 or 2 button presses away.
Sends On Fader
X32 brings the convenience of digital mixing to your Aux and output bus mixes too, thanks to its integrated Sends on Fader feature. This incredible function allows you to build powerful, dedicated sub-mixes for monitor, secondary zone feeds, and much more—all without affecting the front of house mix or levels.
The X32 allows you to send your choice of signals to any Aux or output bus and then dial in the perfect mix via the channel faders.
The console remembers where you set the faders and instantly recalls them when you select a bus for quick adjustments.
DCA (Digitally Controlled Amplifier) groups allow control over several signals at once without actually mixing them into a subgroup bus. X32’s 8 DCA groups let you control multiple signals via a single fader, such as the entire drum mix, the horn section, or the backup vocalists, etc.
DCA control affects the FOH mix, while allowing the individual buses to remain unchanged. The result is a customizable workflow that provides maximum flexibility, but still allows individual buses and subgroups to serve the purpose they were intended for, such as zone sends, broadcast feeds, etc.
Across the X32 you’ll find 11 strategically placed View buttons associated with various functions. These buttons enable immediate access to information about that specific function.
For instance, if you press the View button in the Equalizer section, information for that channel’s EQ is instantly shown on the main display, providing in-depth editing of all related parameters.
This direct access to visual fine-tuning gives the engineer a level of control previously available only on consoles costing exponentially more.
While some digital consoles off er a few user-definable controls, X32’s Assign section sets a new standard by providing a total of 36 fully customizable controls on three separate layers.
As with channels and buses, individual Scribble Strips are provided for immediate identification. Buttons can be defined to toggle parameters on/off , adjust timing of effects by tapping, or jump to specific screen views.
Rotary encoders with LED collars can be assigned to specific channel parameters, or to additional parameters in the Dynamics section relevant to the current channel selection.
“Acoustic Integration” – the Live Sound Revolution
Legendary 40-year old British company TURBOSOUND, famous for producing some of the world’s best speaker systems, have teamed up with BEHRINGER to seamlessly integrate mixer and speaker systems. We call it “Acoustic Integration”.
The X32’s ULTRANET bus allows streaming up to 16-channels of pristine digital audio to an array of TURBOSOUND iQ speakers - all on a single CAT5 cable, along with control data to set sound presets remotely.
Furthermore, the iQ Series features “True Physical Modeling” of some of the most popular speakers which can be easily remote controlled via the X32, allowing the sound engineer to apply different speaker models in real time from the comfort of the mixing desk.
“Acoustic Integration” is the next live sound revolution.
100-Band RTA for all Channel/ Bus EQ’s
The X32 now includes a high-resolution 100-band Real Time Analyzer (RTA), with full Bar and Spectrograph views. This high-resolution RTA displays the audio energy distribution in 100 frequency bands over time – capturing a sonogram window of a full 10 seconds.
Switch between the Large RTA view, displaying any available signal in full screen resolution, or the Combined view with the RTA view shown above each of the channel and bus EQ curves.
See the results of your filtering choices in the audio spectrum directly. Additionally, the RTA can be displayed on top of the 31-band graphic EQs in the FX rack.
Monitoring and controlling frequencies has never been easier!
16 Breathtaking FX “Plug-Ins” Based on True Physical Modelling
We’ve added 16 new FX “Plug-Ins” to the X32, giving you access to a total of 50+ effects that would otherwise cost tens of thousands of dollars in hardware.
This new generation of high-end FX “Plug-Ins” is based on True Physical Modeling of classic audio hardware. We essentially “rebuilt” classic analogue gear in the digital domain and included models of legendary processors such as Urei’s 1176, Teletronix LA-2A and Fairchild 670 compressors as well as the legendary Pultec* EQP- 1a and EQ5 equalisers etc. We also added a cutting-edge 5-band multiband compressor.
Last but not least, the X32 can now run 4 studio-quality stereo reverbs together with 8 channels of 31-band graphic EQ. This allows you to replace your old outboard gear with a fully recallable onboard solution.
Gain Splitting and Remote Control for FOH and Monitoring
A new Gain Split mode separates channel gain (trim) from the head amp gain, allowing both the FOH and/or the monitor engineer to adjust local trim digitally – and independently of the preamp gain.
Additionally, the new HA Gain Remote option allows console gains to be remotely controlled by an external console, such as when using the X32 RACK as a stage box.
More Routing and Processing Flexibility
The X32’s routing becomes even more flexible with this recent firmware upgrade. Output signals and XLR outputs are now treated separately, allowing signals from AES50 sources or expansion cards to be routed directly to the X32’s analogue outputs.
For example, now you can use the outputs from an X32 RACK for directly routing back PA or monitoring signals from a main or FOH console. New output tap points can be set as pre- or post-mute for greater usability with your P16 personal monitoring mixers. This is very useful in situations where you don’t want mute groups to interrupt your signal flow.
Mighty New Tools for Scene and Show Management
Introducing the Cue List, an innovative way to automate the loading of scenes and new “Snippets” at different points during a show. Each of the 500 Cue entries can load any of the 100 Scenes or Snippets separately or at the same time. This gives you an amazing total of 500 Cues x 100 Scenes x 100 Snippets!
For example, store your favourite EQ settings for drums on channels 1-8 as a Snippet, recallable in an instant as its own preset, completely independent of the console’s overall scene. It’s like taking a snapshot of a parameter on an input, return, FX slot, bus, Matrix, Main or DCA group – and saving it for quick access whenever you need it.
MIDAS The Golden Preamp
X32’s input topology – mic preamps, programmable gain controls and A/D stages were designed by a dedicated engineering team at MIDAS, the company famous for their award-winning mic preamplifier designs.
Conceived as a single, cohesive system, and built around premium A/D converters, this proprietary preamp design captures every nuance of your input signal – ensuring superb sonic performance.
Gain setting is fully programmable and covers a total range of 72 dB, with a precision resolution of 0.5 dB per step.
Accommodating a maximum input signal level of +23 dBu, X32 turns analogue VRs and pad switches into ancient history.
Backing the analogue input section are audiophile-quality Cirrus Logic multi-channel A/D converters, which boast a 114 dB dynamic range, ensuring impressively-low distortion and low- noise performance.
The MIDAS designed preamplifier ensures signal integrity of the highest degree.
Audio Networking & Interfacing
X32 includes an array of control and networking capabilities as standard features. Dual-port AES50 digital networking supports up to 96 channels of audio over shielded (STP) CAT5 cable, allowing remote stage boxes and sharing signals among several connected X32s. Onboard ULTRANET provides a 16-channel digital mix direct to P16 Personal Monitor Mixers, without added hardware, cost or latency. Ethernet, USB 2.0, MIDI – all standard features on X32.
What are AES50 and SuperMac?
AES50 simultaneously provides high channel counts, extremely low and deterministic latencies, accurate phase-aligned networked clock distribution, error detection, network redundancy, with simple deployment and ease of use to meet the needs of the live performance industry.
This unique combination also benefits both live and studio recording applications, as well as post-production, broadcasting and audio routing infrastructure. SuperMAC is a proprietary implementation of AES50 owned by KLARK TEKNIK. Originally developed by Sony Pro-Audio Labs in Oxford, UK, it forms the basis of the Audio Engineering Society’s AES50 open standard for digital audio networking – High Resolution Multi-channel Audio Interconnection (HRMAI), as published by the Audio Engineering Society, Inc.
- 48 bidirectional audio channels @ 48 kHz over Neutrik etherCON-terminated cable
- Remote operation via shielded CAT5e cable up to 330 ft / 100 m length
- Single cable duplex interconnection for audio and sample clocks
- Ethernet physical layer audio data transmission
- High channel count and ultra-low deterministic latency (2 x 3 samples = 1?8 ms per node)
- Accurate phase-aligned clock distribution
- Comprehensive error detection and management
- Provision for redundant networking
- Minimal configuration – total ease of deployment and use
- Ethernet TCP/IP protocol-compatible auxiliary data channel
Whether you come from an analogue mixing background, or are accustomed to using other digital consoles, your first experience with X32 has been engineered to be intuitive, fluid and straightforward.
The brilliance of the X32 is its simplicity and immediate workflow. Tactile controls allow smooth adjustments to critical elements as the mix progresses while the TFT screen keeps you informed every step of the way.
This integration of tactile controls, motorised faders and the array of LCD and TFT displays makes the X32 experience the premier solution for Live Sound, Broadcast, Studio Recording and Post Production applications.
Each X32 comes loaded with all of the connectivity, I/O and functionality you need, right out of the box – but it does not end there.
Onboard USB 2.0 connectivity delivers a full 32 x 32 channels of audio and MIDI to your DAW. Integrated multi-channel digital audio interfaces connect to remote stage boxes and/or the P16 Personal Monitor System.
The FX Racks
X32 includes an extensive array of onboard effects, rendering outboard processing racks a thing of the past. The Virtual FX rack features 8 true-stereo, studio-grade effects engines each assignable to any input, group or output mix bus. Choose from high-end FX modules including a range of reverbs, delays, EQs, dynamics and much more.
Each FX algorithm has been completely re-imagined for stunning performance – typically costing several times the price of the X32.
Custom-designed, and physically modelled after some of the most iconic and sought-after processors, all effects run inside the low-latency environment of the X32 mix engine, ensuring flawless performance, flexible routing and the end of cable faults forever!
- The immaculate tube signal path in Teletronix’ LA-2A Leveling Amplifier has left its exceptional clarity, its rich and warm compression on countless albums of the past decades.
- The ultra-smooth optical attenuator is closely modelled in our LA COMPRESSOR. It provides breezing, natural and effortlessly musical compression. (Inspired by Teletronix LA-2A*)
- When Urei released the 1176LN Limiting Amplifier in the late 60’s, it broke new ground. Field Effect Transistors employed were just invented and the 1176 was one of the first audio processors to benefit from this new technology.
- Our digital re-incarnation, ULTIMO COMPRESSOR, is based on the early Rev. E model and authentically captures the smooth character of the original class-A output stage and its FET’s legendary fast Attack. (Inspired by Urei 1176LN*)
- The Fairchild 670 tube compressor not only achieves record bids in high-end vintage gear auctions, it also delivers some of the finest coloration in compressor history. Two small trim VR’s preset the control side chain action, a six-step switch determines the timing, and the two large Input and Threshold knobs adjust the levels. Our FAIR COMPRESSOR model is true to the original signal path, and conveniently provides models for dual, stereo-linked or M/S operation. (Inspired by Fairchild 670*)
- The COMBINATOR is an amazing 5-band compressor that emulates famous broadcasting and mastering compressors.
- A highly complex processor, the COMBINATOR utilizes automatic parameter control that produces stunning and “inaudible” results. Makeup-gain for each frequency band will automatically be adjusted by the Spectral Balance Control (SBC) function, to maintain a balanced audio spectrum.
- The XTEC EQ1 is undisputedly one of the best passive studio equalisers ever manufactured. Virtually indescribable, recording engineers claim the Pultec EQP-1a to be the “secret sauce” of sound enhancement.
- We analyzed this classic to the core and created an exact physical model that reproduces the multi-faceted sound in painstaking detail. Even the transformers and tube output stage have been faithfully modelled! (Inspired by Pultec EQP-1a*)
- Pultec simply wrote the book on passive equalization. By digitally “rebuilding” every aspect of the original Pultec classic, we captured the very essence in our parametric equalizer XTEC EQ5. Our digital re-incarnation is based on the original model and authentically emulates the smooth character of the its rather unique components. (Inspired by Pultec MEQ5*)
- The new SUB OCTAVER provides two channels of earth-shattering sub-harmonics generation, one or even two octaves below the input signal. While originally designed for bass players, the effect can be adjusted for Hi, Mid and Low frequency tracking to apply to a wide range of applications. This is your secret weapon for beatboxing...
- The EDISON EX1 is the re-incarnation of our own analog classics. This remarkably-effective tool allows manipulation of the stereo field. Selectable M/S input/output modes allow the processing or creation of M/S recorded sound sources. (Inspired by BEHRINGER EDISON)
- The SOUND MAXIMIZER restores natural brilliance and clarity to any audio signal by adjusting the phase and amplitude integrity to reveal more of the natural texture of the sound, which is often hidden when using some effects and equalizers. (Inspired by Sonic Maximizer 482i*)
- The DIMENSIONAL CHORUS is the perfect emulation of what has been referred to as “the best analog Chorus unit ever created”. Four simple Mode preset buttons activate amazing effects, best described as “space” and “dimension”. Absolutely faithful to the original, multiple preset buttons can be pressed simultaneously. (Inspired by Roland Dimension D Chorus*)
- MODULATION DELAY combines three of the most used time modulation effects into one easy-to-operate unit. Enjoy true-stereo delay with a lush and spacious chorus, topped off with three reverb models to choose from.
- The Lexicon 480L* has been recognised as the gold standard of digital reverb. We have included three of the fi nest reverb models - Rich Plate, Room and Rich Chamber. The X32’s models precisely capture all nuances based on our “True Physical Modelling” and our algorithms even incorporate the unit’s AD/DA gain stepping converters — nailing the entire analogue and digital circuit paths right down to the last detail. (Inspired by Lexicon 480L*)
- EXCITERS increase presence and intelligibility in live sound applications and are indispensable for adding clarity, air and harmonic overtones in the recording studio. ENHANCERS let you emphasise the Bass, Midrange and Hi output at selectable frequencies. You can generate maximum punch, clarity and detail, without turning up the overall volume. (Inspired by Aphex Aural Exciter* and SPL Vitalizer*)
- Our TruEQ STEREO GEQ delivers musical and responsive signal processing—perfect for general room equalization, indispensable for monitoring. X32 provides up to 16 mono graphic EQs, in addition to the multi-band parametric EQs in all channels and buses, to cope with the most demanding stage monitoring situation. Plus, the X32’s motorised faders can be switched to control the filter bands of the graphic EQ, with the channel LCDs showing the corresponding filter frequencies—and you can even put this on a user defined hot-key for immediate access. (Modelled after KLARK TEKNIK DN360)
- VINTAGE ROOM stands out head and shoulders over other competing reverberation strategies in the way it models sound propagation in air and room resonances. Invented in the early ‘80s, the role model delivered authentic room character from an algorithmic reverb long before convolution-based processing was available. It is an ideal reverb for mixes or sub-groups, as it adds space to complex signals—highly valued in classical music and broadcasting environments. (Inspired by Quantec QRS*)
- PLATE REVERB emulates the characteristics of a plate reverb chamber with control over the damping pad, modulation depth and speed, and crossover. PLATE REVERB will give your tracks the sound heard on countless hit records since the late 1950’s. (Inspired by Lexicon PCM70*)
- The 3-TAP DELAY in the X32 records the input signal and then echoes it back after a user-definable period of time and number of repeats. What makes the stereo and triple delay useful and outstanding is the linked tap-timing and musical choice of echo patterns.
- Use the 3-TAP DELAY to fatten up vocals and instruments, or to add an enhanced spatial element to any performance.
- The HALL REVERB effect provides a broad spectrum of reverberation possibilities, from small room to large, or even cavernous proportions. When softly mixed with the original signal, Hall Reverb can be used to create a warm, more natural sound. (Inspired by Lexicon 480L*)
- This handy dynamic FLANGER & DELAY duo blends the “whoosh” of soaring jet planes with classic Delay, and can be adjusted from mild to wild. This combination effect only takes up one FX slot. (Inspired by Lexicon PCM70*)
- WAVE DESIGNER is a powerful tool for adjusting signal transients and dynamics such as attack and sustain. Use it to make a snare drum really “crack” in the mix or level out volume inconsistencies of slap bass tracks. (Inspired by SPL Transient Designer*)
- The STEREO PRECISION LIMITER is perfect for setting a precise volume limits, ensuring distortion-free and optimal signal integrity. Use the Stereo Precision Limiter to boost quiet signals or reduce the level of ”hot” signals to prevent clipping. (Inspired by Sony Oxford Dynamics*)
- The DE-ESSER is a “must-have” tool for reducing the amount of sibilance in vocal mics while adeptly preserving the natural voice timbre of a performance. Use it to enhance the smoothness of the upper mid to high frequencies in vocals as well as drum overheads and strings, etc. (Inspired by SPL 1239*)
- Based on the legendary EMT250, the VINTAGE REVERB delivers a shimmering, bright reverb that won’t drown out or overpower your live/recorded tracks. Use the VINTAGE REVERB to sweeten vocals and snare drums without sacrificing clarity. (Inspired by EMT250 Plate Reverb*)
- Taking up only one FX slot, the CHORUS & CHAMBER effect combines the shimmer and doubling characteristics of a studio-grade Chorus with the sweet sound of a traditional Chamber reverb. (Inspired by Lexicon PCM70*)
A versatile powerhouse of a live console, the X32 also provides robust studio functionality. Record and play back up to 32 tracks, which run on Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 operating systems or Mac computers via USB 2.0 connectivity. X32 supports 44.1 and 48 kHz sample rates at 24-Bit, allowing you to record up to 32 tracks of live audio directly to your computer for mixing down later.
Take advantage of X32’s built-in FX engines to augment your DAW’s plug- in collection, or to free up valuable computer resources. X32’s recall capability makes it easy for both project and professional studio engineers to stay organised by storing projects as scenes, either internally or externally on a USB stick.
DAW Ready—MIDI Plus Mackie Control & HUI Protocols
Thanks to its onboard MIDI ports, the X32 console can function as a high-level, large-format control surface, similar to Mackie Control and HUI, and integrates seamlessly with most popular DAW platforms. X32’s motorised faders can be used to send position information to the onscreen DAW faders, while each bus’ mute and solo buttons control their onscreen counterparts.
This powerful control surface relationship, which functions bi-directionally between the X32 and your DAW, allows you to work more quickly and attend to the finer nuances of the overall mix. After all, mixing with your hands puts you in “touch” with your project, providing a level of finesse that can mean the difference between a good recording session—and a work of art! Or, would you rather use a mouse?
Optional Expansion Cards
The X32’s expansion slot provides flexible and expandable connectivity for many different applications. A wide array of X-Expansion Cards can easily be used in place of the pre-installed X-USB card to release the power of X32 into existing MADI, Dante and ADAT networks. Fully compatible with these widely available audio protocols, the X32 delivers a seamless integration in digital live sound, recording and broadcast environments.